We know at times, we speak in terms not understood by everyone. If you want to speak-the-speak, take a look at the reference terminology or our 'JADCOPEDIA' below.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (0-9)


Abrasion • The process one material sliding or moving across another material. The resulting friction causes gouges or scratches in the softer material.

Alloy Steel • Any steel to which alloying elements besides carbon have been intentionally added (i.e. nickel, molybdenum) to create a desired property.

Annealing • Heating steel to a specific temperature, holding it at that point, then cooling it slowly. Annealing improves machinability, cold working properties, removes stresses, etc. Annealing is typically done in a furnace where temperatures and cooling rates can be carefully controlled.

Austenite • The solid carbon solution in gamma iron.

Austenitic Steels • Steel with large amounts of alloying elements (usually nickel or manganese) which work harden, but may otherwise be hardened by heat treatment. Austenitic steel is typically non-magnetic.



Bessemer Process • The process for making steel using high-pressure air blown through molten iron, which removes the impurities of oxidation.

Blast Furnace • A cylinder-shaped furnace to produce pig iron which can be directly converted into steel.

Boron (B) • Boron is used as an alloying element in unalloyed and low alloyed steels for hardness level enhancement through the hardenability. This is evident even at very small concentrations, of 0.0010% Boron. Boron has the same hardenability enhancement as more expensive elements which need to be added in much larger quantities.

Brinell Hardness Test • A test hardness test using a 10 mm Tungsten ball at 3000 kg. The test evaluates hardness by measuring the width of the ball’s indentation into the steel.



Calcium (Ca) • Calcium acts as a deoxidizer and degasifier when added to steel in the form of calcium silicide. Enhances transverse ductility and toughness.

Carbon (C) • Carbon is added to iron in making steel. When added in specific amounts, it controls hardness and strength of the steel. Increased carbon reduces ductility but increases strength and hardenability. the of the steel to when cooled rapidly from elevated temperatures. Increased carbon content decreases both ductility and weldability.

Carbon Steel • Carbon steel is defined by the amount of carbon present. Other elements, such as manganese, nickel, chromium and molybdenum may also be present. It becomes an alloy steel when one or more alloying elements have been added in sufficient amounts.

Carburizing • Adding carbon into the surface of a low carbon steel by heating either a solid or liquid containing carbon. Penetration into the surface of the steel increases with temperatures and time in this process. Quench and tempering is necessary to harden the steel following carburization.

Case-Hardening • Hardening only the outer surface of the steel. Usually applied to low carbon steel to perform on alloy or carbon steel. The steel has a very hard outer surface, with a softer core.

Cast Iron • A carbon and iron alloy with a high carbon content, ranging from 1.8% to 4.5%. Silicon, manganese, sulphur and phosphorus are often present. Nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, and chromium can be added to produce cast iron alloys.

Charpy Test • Determines how well a steel resists impact. A notched steel sample, is impacted by a pendulum, measuring how much energy is required to break the steel. A brittle steel breaks more easily, due to lower impact strength.

Chromium (Cr) • Chromium increases the steel’s hardenability, corrosion resistance, and provides wear and abrasion resistance in the presence of carbon. In stainless steels, it is often used from 12% to 20% Cr.

Chromeweld 600 ® JADCO’s chromium carbide overlay plate, with a high chrome carbide is pre-deposited onto a mild steel plate. Designed for sliding abrasion with minimum to moderate impact.

Chromeweld NB Plus ® JADCO’s chromium carbide overlay plate, with Niobium particles added to the high chrome carbide, which is pre-deposited onto a mild steel plate. NB PLUS ® is designed for fine particle abrasion and high velocity, such as blow lines, elbows, chutes and industrial fan blades and housings.

Chromeweld TI ® JADCO’s chromium carbide overlay plate, with Titanium Carbides added to high chrome carbides; pre-deposited onto a mild steel plate. TI is designed for Impact with Abrasion applications in nearly every industrial application.

Chromeweld Glide ® JADCO’s high chromium carbide overlay plate deposited onto a mild steel plate. The polished, precision ground surface has a low coefficient of friction. This non-stick surface minimizes material adhering to the surface.

Coefficient of Expansion • A change in length, area or volume given a degree change in temperature.

Cobalt (Co) • An alloying element used in tool, magnet and heat resisting steels. Cobalt improves the red hardness of the alloy. Used with molybdenum and tungsten to form high speed steels.

Cold Drawing • The process of reducing the cross sectional area of wire, bar or tube by drawing the material through a die without pre-heating the steel. Cold drawing is primarily used for producing steel bar in various shapes. This process results in a finished product. Cold drawing also changes the mechanical properties of the steel.

Cold Working • Altering the shape or size of a metal by plastic deformation, such as rolling, drawing, pressing, spinning, etc. It is usually done at room temperature. Hardness and tensile strength are increased and ductility and impact values are reduced. The cold rolling and cold drawing improves the surface finish.

Controlled Atmosphere • A gas or mixture of gases in which steel is heated to produce or maintain a specific surface condition. Controlled atmosphere furnaces are widely used in the heat treating steel.

Copper (Cu) • The purpose of copper in steel is to increase to atmospheric corrosion resistance. It does not significantly affect mechanical properties, but will cause brittleness at high temperatures, affecting surface quality.

Core • Refers to the softer center of a steel component that has been case-hardened.

Corrosion Fatigue • Repeated stress combined with corrosion. The speed of fatigue depends on the range and frequency, nature and time under the stress.

Creep • The form of plastic deformation in steel held at high temperature for long periods of time.

Critical Cooling Rate • The slowest cooling rate from the hardening temperature to produce the hardness desired.

Critical Point • The temperature at which a chemical or physical change occurs. These temperatures vary with the rate of cooling and carbon content of the steel.

Critical Temperature • The temperature where a change occurs in metal during heating or cooling, where a critical point is shown on heating or cooling curves.



Decarburization • Loss of carbon from the surface of steel from heating in a carbon weak atmosphere. Hot rolling steel hot surfaces are exposed to the decarburizing effects of oxygen in the atmosphere and as a result the surface is depleted of carbon. In steels where the components are to be subsequently heat treated it is necessary to remove the decarburized surface by machining.

Deoxidation • Adding Manganese, Silicon and Aluminum to molten steel form oxides and reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen. The oxygen solubility in steel is reduced as temperature is lowered during solidification. The remaining oxygen combines with Carbon to form Carbon Monoxide Steel treated in this way is called, “Killed Steel”. If the molten metal is not deoxidized, the presence of Carbon Monoxide during solidification results in steel porosity.

Die • When hot rolled steel wire or bar is forced or drawn to produce the finish and shape that is required.

Drawing • Pulling metal rods, bars or wire through a die to alter the size, finish and mechanical properties. Also a term used for tempering steel to a lower point.

Drop Forging • Drop Forging is forcing hot metal into shapes formed in solid blocks of hardened alloy steel dies. The dies are made in halves, one attached to the rising and falling block of the drop forge and the other to the stationary anvil. Drop forgings are widely used in the automotive industry for crankshafts, axles, gears, etc.

Ductility • The property of metal which permits it to be reduced in cross sectional area without fracture. In a tensile test, ductile metals show considerable elongation before eventually failing by necking.



Elastic Limit • The maximum stress applied to a metal without producing permanent deformation.

Elasticity • The property which enables material to return to its original shape and dimension.

Elongation • A test to measure the ductility of steel. When a material is tested for tensile strength it elongates a certain amount before fracture takes place. The two pieces are placed together and the amount of extension is measured against marks made before starting the test and is expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.

Etching • Treatment of a prepared metal surface with acid or other chemical to expose the structure.

Extrusion • The production of a section by forcing a billet to flow through a die. Often used for producing complex sections, the process is used with both hot and cold metal. Seamless tubes are produced by forcing a hot billet to flow through a die over a mandrel positioned centrally in the die.



Fatigue • The effect on metal of repeated stress cycles. With fatigue failure there is typically no obvious warning, making it difficult to detect. Fractures usually start from small nicks or scratches which cause a stress concentration point.

Flame Hardening • A surface hardening process by applying a high temperature flame followed by water quenching. It is usually applied to medium to large size components such as large gears, sprockets, shafts, etc. Steels for this process will have 0.40-0.55% carbon content.

Forging • A process of working metal to a finished shape by hammering or pressing and is primarily a “hot” operation. It is applied to the production of shapes either impossible or too costly to make by other methods or needing properties not obtainable by casting. Types of forging include Hammer, Press, Drop or Stamping.

Fracture • A break in the surface of steel. It appears crystalline, bright and glittering. A fracture having a smooth dull grain, indicates a ductile material such as a mild steel.



Grain refinement • Grain refinement is influenced by alloy and processing methods. The addition of titanium and aluminum retards austenite grain growth in heat treatment.



HardFacing • A method to increase the wear resistance of a metal with the addition of a chromium carbide weld deposit.

Hard Metals • A group of materials commonly known as cemented carbides. They consist of mixtures of one or more carbides of tungsten, titanium, tantalum and vanadium embedded in a cobalt or nickel matrix.

Hardenability • The property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness when steel is heated to a specific temperature and then quenched. The critical cooling rate is a function of the alloy composition in the steel. Typically, the higher the carbon content, the greater the hardenability. Adding elements such as nickel, chromium, manganese and molybdenum will increase the depth of hardening in alloy steels.

Hardening • Increasing the hardness of steel by heat treatment. This normally implies heating the steel to a required temperature and quenching in the specific medium, i.e. water or oil.

Hardness • The hardness of steel is generally determined by testing its resistance to deformation. Common testing methods are Brinell, Vickers and Rockwell. The steel to be tested is indented by a hardened steel or tungsten ball or diamond under a given load. The size of the impression is then measured. In steel there is an experiential relationship between hardness and tensile strength.

Hardguard Wear Blocks • JADCO’s high chrome, cast white iron bonded onto a mild steel backing plate for ease of installation. These wear blocks are 63 HRc minimum for maximum abrasion protection, at temperatures up to 572° F. They are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes.

Heat • In steel making terms this is often used to describe the amount of steel or iron produced from a single melting operation.

Heat Treatment • A process where solid steel or components manufactured from steel are subject to treatment by heating to obtain required properties, such as normalizing, stress relieving or hardening. Heating for hot rolling or forging is excluded from this definition.

High Speed Steel • The term ‘high speed steel’ describes a product that it is capable of cutting metal at a higher rate than carbon tool steel and continues to cut and retain its hardness even when the point of the tool is heated to a dull red temperature. Tungsten is the major alloying element but is often combined with molybdenum, vanadium and cobalt. High speed steel is still widely used for manufacturing taps, dies, twist drills, reamers, saw blades and other cutting tools.

Hot Quenching • Cooling in a medium, the temperature of which is substantially higher than room temperature.

Hot Work • The rolling, forging or extruding of a metal at a temperature above its recrystallization point.

Hydrogen (H) • An undesirable impurity if present in steel and a cause of fine hairline cracks especially in alloy steels. Modern vacuum treatment eliminates this problem.



Impact • Impact wear is typical of surface fatigue caused by material hitting the target material.

Impact Test • A test designed to determine how a test sample of material will respond to a suddenly applied force. The test verifies the toughness of a material. The two testing methods are the Izod or Charpy test. The result is usually reported as the ft.lbs of energy required to fracture the test piece.

Inclusions • Usually non-metallic particles contained in metal. In steel they may consist of simple or complex oxides, sulphides, silicates and sometimes nitrides of iron, manganese, silicon, aluminum and other elements. They are detrimental to mechanical properties depending on the number, size, shape and quantity.

Inclusion • Count A method of assessing the number and size of non-metallic inclusions present in metal.

Induction Hardening • A process for surface hardening steel. The components are heated in an alternating magnetic field to a temperature within or above the transformation range followed by immediate quenching. The core of the component remains unaffected by this treatment and its physical properties match the bar from which it was machined. Carbon and alloy steels with a carbon content in the range 0.40/0.45% are often selected for this process. The hardness of the case can range from 37 to 58 Rc.

Iron (Fe) • The chemical element iron or pure iron and is the primary element in all iron and steel products.



Jominy Test • A method for determining the hardenability of steel. A standard test piece is heated to a pre-determined temperature and quenched by water sprayed onto one end. After cooling the hardness measurements are made along the test piece from the quenched end. The results are plotted on a standard chart to derive the hardenability curve. This test illustrates the effect of mass upon a heat treated steel and indicate the depth of hardness.

Joule • A unit of energy. One joule is equal to the energy expended in one second by one ampere against the resistance of one ohm. In the mechanical testing of steel it is the unit used in the Charpy V notch impact test.



Killed Steel • The term indicates that the steel has been deoxidized completely by the addition of an agent such as silicon or aluminum, to eliminate gas during solidification. Killed steels are porosity free.



Leaded Steels • When added to steel, lead does not go into solution but exists along the grain boundaries. It benefits machinability, acting as a lubricant between the steel and the tool. Lead is normally added in amounts between 0.15-0.35% with similar amounts of Sulphur to attain optimum machinability.



Machinability • The ease with which a metal is satisfactorily machined.

Macrostructure • The crystalline structure of a metal and distribution of impurities visible on a polished or etched surface by either the naked eye or under low magnification.

Malleability • The ability of a metal to be compressed without cracking or rupturing. The load may be applied slowly or suddenly to determine if the material is suitable for forging or rolling into thin sheet.

Manganese (Mn) • One of the most important constituents of steel in which it fulfills a number of functions. It acts as a mild de-oxidizing agent. It combines with the sulphur present to form globular inclusions of Manganese Sulphide which are beneficial to machining. It increases tensile strength and the hardenability of steel. Will also increase hardness as levels increase, but not to the same degree as carbon. Ductility and weldability are decreased but, again, to a lesser degree than caused by carbon.

Martensite • The hard constituent produced when steel is cooled from the hardening temperature at a speed greater than its critical cooling rate. Martensite is an acicular phase when seen in the microstructure of steel.

Maximum Stress • Testing the strength of steel in a tensile testing machine until it breaks.

Melting Point • The temperature at which a solid will liquefy.

Micron • A unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter (0.001mm).

Microstructure • The structure observed when a polished and etched metal specimen is viewed in a microscope at magnifications of x25 to x1500.

Modulus of Elasticity • When a material is subjected to an external load it becomes distorted or strained. With metals, provided the loading is not too great, they return to their original dimensions when the load is removed, i.e. they are elastic. Within the limits of elasticity, the ratio of the linear stress to the linear strain is termed the modulus of elasticity.

Molybdenum (Mo • Is used as an alloying element in steel to increase hardenability and in low alloy steels reduces temper brittleness. Added to stainless steel it increases corrosion resistance.



Nickel (Ni) • One of the most widely used alloying elements in steel. In amounts from 0.50% to 5.00% in alloy steels, Nickel increases the toughness and tensile strength without adversely affecting ductility. Nickel also increases the hardenability, permitting the steel to be oil- hardened instead of water quenched. In larger quantities, 8.00% and upwards, nickel together with chromium, are the basis of many corrosion resistant and austenitic stainless steels.

Nitriding • A case hardening process that depends on the absorption of nitrogen into the steel. All machining, stress relieving, hardening or tempering are completed before nitriding. The parts are heated in a sealed vessel where ammonia gas is inserted. The ammonia splits into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the nitrogen penetrating the steel surface to form nitrides.

Nitriding steels • offer many advantages: a higher surface hardness is compared with case-hardening steels, that are extremely abrasion resistant.

Nitrogen (N) • Nitrogen is a gas that forms approximately 79% by volume or 77% by weight of the Earth’s atmosphere. It can combine with many metals to form nitrides and is used for case-hardening steel, with the addition of ammonia.

Normalizing • A heat treatment process designed to relieve internal stresses, refining the grain size and improving the mechanical properties. The steel is heated to a specific temperature and length of time to allow to fully heat soak and cool in still air.

Notched Bar Test • A test to measure the resistance of a material to a suddenly applied force. A notched test piece is placed in a Charpy test machine and the results are recorded in ft.lbs.



Oil Hardening Steel • Used to describe tool or alloy steels where oil is the quenching medium in the hardening process.

Ore • An ore is a material that contains a metal in such quantities that it can be mined and worked to extract that metal. The metal is usually found in a chemical combination with other elements and impurities.

Overheating • Failure of tools and components in heat treatment can arise through overheating. This may be caused by quenching from a temperature too high for the type of steel. Overheating is shown by cracking, grain-coarseness, erratic surface hardness & pitting.

Oxidation • A common chemical reaction combining oxygen with various elements and compounds. The corrosion of metals is a form of oxidation. Rust on iron is iron oxide.

Oxy-Acetylene Welding • A process by which two pieces of metal are joined at a high temperature obtained by the combustion of acetylene gas and oxygen. The gases are thoroughly mixed in the nozzle or tip of the welding torch. The weld may be formed directly between two adjoining surfaces, but usually has a filler metal fused between the joint surfaces.

Oxygen (O) • Oxygen is one of the main elements and forms approximately one fifth in Earth’s atmosphere. Odorless and invisible, oxygen itself does not burn but is extremely efficient in enhancing combustion. Nearly all other chemical elements combine with oxygen when heated.



pH • Value A method of expressing differences in the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A figure of 7 is regarded as neutral, figures below this indicate the decree of acidity and above alkalinity.

Phosphorus (P) • An element that forms 0.12% of the earth’s crust, chiefly in the form of phosphates. Its presence in steel is regarded as an undesirable impurity due to its embrittling effect. Phosphorus does benefit machinability and resistance to atmospheric corrosion. It increases strength and hardness slightly, but it decreases ductility and impact strength (toughness). Phosphorus is considered an impurity except in specific situations.

Pre-Heating • Used in the hardening process. Tools are pre- heated before heating to the final temperature, this is particularly important in tools of complex shape to prevent distortion or cracking.



QT PLUS ® JADCO’s through hardened wear resistant steel for a combination of impact and abrasion.

Quenching • Rapid cooling from a high temperature by immersion in a liquid bath of oil, water or molten salts.

Quenching Crack • A fracture caused by thermal stresses induced during rapid cooling.



Red Hardness • A term associated with a tungsten high speed steel due to the ability to retaining adequate hardness for cutting metals heated to a temperature high enough to cause a dull redness.

Reduction of area • The percentage decrease of cross- sectional area in a tensile test piece caused by wasting or necking of the specimen. It is expressed as a percentage of the original area of the test piece and is a measure of ductility.

Refining • A heat treatment process for making the grain size of the steel uniform.

Residual Stress • The stress which exists in an elastic solid body in the absence of, or in addition to, the stresses caused by an external load. Such stresses can be caused from deformation during cold working such as cold drawing or stamping; in welding from weld metal shrinkage, and in volume changes due to thermal expansion.

Rockwell Hardness Testing • A method for testing the hardness of metals by determining the depth of penetration of a steel ball or a diamond sphero-conical indenter. The value is read from a dial and is a number related to the depth of penetration. For testing hard steels, a sphero-conical diamond is used with a 150 kg load, the result is prefixed with the letter C. Softer metals use the B Scale with a 1/16″ diameter steel ball and a 100 kgs load.

Rolling • The process of shaping metal by passing it between rolls revolving at the same speed and in opposite directions. In steel there are a number of different types of rolling mill for processing an ingot into its finished shape. These are variously known as Cogging mills, Slabbing mills, Billet mills, Bar mills and Strip mills, which produce plate, sections, bars, sheet and strip. Cold rolling of previously hot rolled strip is carried out to produce strip that is accurate to size with a smooth bright polished surface.



Scale • The oxidized surface of steel produced during hot working, such as rolling, and by exposure to air or steam at elevated temperature.

Scrap • It forms the basic raw material for making steel by the electric arc process. Steel offers ecological advantages as it can be recycled, and reused. Scrap is selected before use and the specific elements are added to achieve the desired steel specifications.

Secondary Hardness • An increase in hardness which sometimes occurs when hardened steel is re-heated. It can be caused by the precipitation of alloy carbides or the transformation of retained austenite to martensite.

Shearing Test • The test applied to metal to determine the stress required to fracture it across its section.

Shore Scleroscope • An instrument that measures the hardness of a sample in terms of elasticity. A diamond tipped hammer is allowed to fall freely down a graduated glass tube on to the sample under test. The hardness is measured by the height of the rebound. In another form the rebounding hammer actuates the pointer of a scale so that the height of the rebound is recorded.

Silicon (Si) • Silicon serves as a principal deoxidizer in steel. Its content in the steel is dependent upon the steel type. Killed steel has the highest percentage of silicon.

Stainless Steel • Is defined as a group of corrosion resisting steels containing a minimum 10% chromium with varying amounts of nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium or other elements arebe present.

Steel • A metallic product whose principal elements are iron and carbon.

Stress Relieving • A heat treatment including heating and soaking at a suitable temperature (e.g. 600-650oC) followed by cooling at an appropriate rate in order to reduce internal stresses without substantially modifying the steel’s structure. This treatment may be used to relieve stresses induced by machining, quenching, welding or cold working.

Sulphur (S) • Generally regarded as an impurity in steel due to detrimental effects on strength, ductility and weldability. It also creates hot and cold shortness. Its content in most steels is limited to a maximum of 0.050%. Sulphur is beneficial for machining, and is added to free machining steels in amounts up to 0.35%, with an increased manganese content to overcome detrimental effects. Sulphur is generally undesired, except where machinability is important. Ductility, impact strength or toughness, weldability, and surface quality are all adversely affected by sulphur content.

Surface Hardening • A method of hardening the surface of steel to increase its wear resistance. Depending on the analysis of the steel, the surface may be hardened by case-hardening, nitriding, induction hardening or flame hardening.



Temper • A term with several definitions, including the operation of tempering; or the degree of hardness in a steel bar after quenching and tempering.

Temper Brittleness • The loss in impact resistance in some low or medium carbon alloy steels. It is shown by the Charpy impact test, but not the tensile test.

Tempering • A heat treatment applied to ferrous products after hardening. By heating the steel to a specific temperature below the transformation range and holding for a suitable time at the temperature, followed by cooling at a prescribed rate. The objective of tempering is to decrease hardness and increase toughness, producing the desired mechanical properties.

Tensile Strength • The maximum load applied to break a tensile test piece divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece.

Tensile Test • A standard testing machine to grip either end and slowly exerts an axial pull so that the steel is stretched until it breaks. The test provides information on yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and reduction of area.

Tin (Sn) • Undesirable when present in steel as an impurity which causes temper brittleness. When used as a coating on steel, it has good corrosion resistance for many applications.

Titanium (Ti) • Small amounts added to steel contribute to its soundness and a finer grain size. In austenitic stainless steels it acts as a carbide stabilizer used to prevent inter-crystalline corrosion, or weld decay. Titanium carbide is also used with tungsten carbide in producing hard metal tools.

Tolerances • The amount of variation permitted on dimensions or surfaces, expressed as the maximum and minimum limits of any specified dimension.

Tool Steel • A term applied to a wide range of steels, both plain carbon and alloy. It includes various types of cutting tools, press tools, die cast molds, extrusion tools, hand tools, etc.

Torsional Strength • The resistance of a bar to twisting, closely associated with its shear strength.

Toughness • The ability of a material to withstand sudden shock loading.

Transformation Range • The temperature range where austenite decomposes to form ferrite and carbide on cooling.

Transformation Temperature • The temperature at which a change in phase occurs or the limiting temperature of a transformation range.

Transition Temperature • The temperature at which a transition from ductile to brittle fracture takes place in steel. It is usually determined by making a series of Charpy impact tests at various temperatures. The transition temperature is determined as the point where 50% of the fracture is brittle.

Transverse Strength • A measurement of strength when the load is applied at right angles to the grain of a metal. Impurities such as sulphur have a detrimental effect on the transverse strength.

Tungsten (W) • When used as an alloying element it increases the strength of steel at normal and elevated temperatures. Its “red hardness” value makes it desirable for cutting tools, as the tool edge remains sharp at high temperatures. Combined with other alloying elements it is used in heat resistant and severe condition applications.



Un-killed Steel • A steel which has not been sufficiently deoxidized and produces gas during solidification creating the formation of blow-holes.



Vacuum Arc Remelting • A process used for producing advanced steels to critical specifications, particularly for aerospace applications. The steel is first produced to a very close analysis and the resulting ingot is slowly re-melted in a Vacuum Arc Remelting furnace for up to 14 hours.

Vacuum Degassing • Modern steel processes use Vacuum Arc Degassing units to reduce the gas content, particularly hydrogen, and other non- metallic inclusions. These units often include automated stirring, precise temperature control of and chemical analysis to ensure a consistent, high quality product.

Vanadium (V) • Steels containing vanadium have a much finer grain structure than steels of similar composition without vanadium. It increases hardenability and also lessens softening on tempering, Vanadium is used in nitriding, heat resisting, tool and spring steels when combined with other alloying elements.



Welding • The process of joining two pieces of metal by melting the work pieces and filler material forming a strong joint. Welding is carried out by the use of heat or pressure or both, with or without added metal.

Work Hardening • The increase in hardness and strength produced by cold plastic deformation or mechanical working.





Yield Strength • The stress at which general plastic elongation of the test piece takes place.



Zinc (Zn) • Zinc is a metallic chemical element, having a bluish white color. Zinc is highly resistant to atmospheric corrosion and is used as a protective coating for iron and steel products, such as galvanized sheets.